Medical Equipment Blog

How accurate is a breath alcohol test?

Monday, June 15, 2009

Breath alcohol tests are very accurate and are not easily cheated or beaten. In reality many police and law enforcement agencies have gone to the easy to use cylinder style, single use breath alcohol test kits since they are accurate and used in legal proceedings plus they are low cost and disposable after use. The breath alcohol tests can be used to test a variety of BAC levels starting at .02% percent and going up to the upper legal limit of 0.08%. Since law enforcement agencies, private individuals or even companies may want to test at lower levels, these kits are available as well. How soon after drinking can you test? Unlike drugs, alcohol goes almost directly into the bloodstream through the lining of the stomach. It does not need to be metabolized in the body to show up in a blood or breath test. Typically most people will feel the maximum amount of effect from alcohol approximately one hour after consumption, however for those having several drinks or eating a meal those times can be somewhat different. Testing using a breath alcohol test can occur anywhere after about 15 minutes from the last drink. These readings will be very accurate and can be used to determine if a person is intoxicated. It is important to note that people may have impaired motor skills and judgment even if their BAC is not at .08% and that they may still be deemed as driving impaired without that BAC. The ability to control the motor vehicle in a safe fashion is really the key determining factor in many cases. Why use a blow bag in a breath alcohol test? Some testers and individuals prefer to use a blow bag, which is really a balloon, then attach the balloon to the end of the tube and force the air through the tube by squeezing the balloon. This method ensures that the right volume of air is being pushed through the tube, which is not possible to measure if the person is blowing or seeming to blow into the tube. Theoretically a person that did not blow sufficient air through the tube may be able to affect the result of the breath alcohol test. Using the balloon is one option to control the test and provide more accuracy. However, if the test is being used by an individual themselves to determine their own BAC then a balloon is likely not necessary. Cheating the test would only give them an inaccurate reading, defeating the complete purpose of the test. How long does it take to get results from a breath alcohol test? Immediately upon blowing through the tube or using the blow bag option, the crystals within the breath alcohol test cylinder will begin to change color. If alcohol in a minimum level as determined by the calibration of the test is present, the crystals will turn the specified color within two minutes. Generally the color change does not require the full two minutes but it is important to wait for the full reaction in order to get an accurate reading.

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Is it true that some vitamins will cause a positive reading in some drug test kits?

This is one excuse that is used frequently for positive results in drug test kits. In reality the tests are designed to exclude false positives by any other type of substance. Vitamins, Tylenol, Aspirin, coffee, tea, soda, poppy seeds on a bagel and even antibiotics will not cause a false positive reading with any type of home use or commercial drug test kits. It is also important to keep in mind that simple being around a drug or handling a drug will not provide enough of a concentration in the blood to trigger a positive reading on drug test kits. Simply being around someone smoking marijuana or handling a bag full of narcotics will not result in a positive test. Codeine, on the other hand, may cause a positive test result for opiates. In some cases prescription pain medication can trigger this response but so can some cough suppressant products that contain codeine. Knowing what, if any, cold or prescription medications an individual is taking at the time of the test can help in determining if a full lab test may be required. Are there drug test kits that test for Rohypnol? Rohypnol, also known as the date rape drug, can be tested for with many drug test kits, as long as they are indicated for benzodiazepines. The biggest issue with testing for Rohypnol as opposed to other drugs in this class is that it typically only stays in the body about 8 hours, which means there is little time after being given the drug to actually test with any accuracy. If the individual is on any prescription benzodiazepines, often prescribed for depression, this can make isolation of Rohypnol impossible with drug test kits. Full laboratory testing through a doctor or clinic can be more specific; however the short time span the drug is in the individuals system still poses the greatest problem. How expensive are drug test kits? Considering the cost of not detecting the use of drugs and seeking help, the cost of drug testing kits is incredibly low and reasonable. Most kits, both urine and saliva, will cost less than ten dollars per unit and some are less than that, depending on the number of panels and the types of drugs tested for. With an increasing demand by private and public companies, agencies and organizations drug test kits are becoming much more accessible and low cost. They are not only effective in determining drug use at the home or workplace but they also have been proven to decrease the overall abuse of substances. The concern of kids, employees and others in the company of being subjected to a random drug test has really affected the rampant abuse of illegal and prescription medications within the workforce. Future increased use of drug testing will only further enhance this trend and set clear expectations for employees and family members to follow.

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Is it true that a saliva oral drug test can be cheated by using mouthwash?

This is one of the oldest myths about saliva oral drug test kits and processes. In fact mouthwash immediately before a saliva oral drug test kit could invalidate the reading, however since you have to wait for 5 minutes before testing this is not an issue. It is essential that nothing be ingested or eaten by the individual to be tested for a minimum of five minutes before administering the test. This includes gum, lozenges, cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or any type of liquids including water, coffee or soda. Will a saliva oral drug test be accurate for all types of drugs? A saliva oral drug test is just like a urine drug test in that they are designed to test for a specific spectrum of drugs. There are some single drug test kits and some that test for more than one drug. Since any drug test only tests for specific drugs, it is important to know what drug your want to test for. Many home users such as parents or guardians as well as businesses prefer to use the six panel test that will include readings for marijuana, cocaine, PCP, methamphetamines, amphetamines and opiates. Like a urine drug test the saliva oral drug test may also detect prescription medications that fall into some of these categories. For example, if the individual tested was on some type of prescription amphetamine, such as some ADHD medications, the test would indicate positive. It is important to know what prescription medications the subject may be taking and check to make sure they won't cause a positive result that may lead to misunderstanding the test results. Do saliva oral drug test kits need to be kept refrigerated? Saliva oral drug test kits or strips come in pre-packaged sealed foil type pouches that do not need to be kept refrigerated. This means that they can easily be taken to any testing area without any concerns for managing and maintaining a specific temperature. All test also have a control line that will appear, usually at the top of the results window. If the control line does not appear on the test the results should be ignored and the test completed again. The control line should always appear on every test to indicate that the test has not been damaged or invalidated. Do I have to have special training to administer a saliva oral drug test? No, there is no specific training required to administer a saliva oral drug test. Most businesses, companies or agencies tend to use someone that is certified only in the event that someone may challenge the test in a court of law. As long as the test are CLIA waived, which means they have been approved for use of the general public, there is no requirement for specific types of training and they are approved for use and considered valid and reliable as long as the instructions are correctly followed.

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How long does cocaine stay in the system to test positive on a cocaine drug test?

This question is rather challenging to answer with a concrete number since there are many factors that can influence how long a specific drug will test positive in someone's system. Cocaine tests measure a metabolite known as benzoylecgonine, which is a by-product of the metabolism of cocaine in the human body. This metabolite goes to the fat cells, and then is released as the body burns the fat cells for energy. The benzoylecgonine released in the urine reacts with the cocaine drug test, providing a positive reading.
Most individuals will test positive for cocaine use 2 to 4 days after using. However, different individuals may test positive for up to 14 days and in chronic heavy users some benzoylecgonine can be detected in the urine for up to 22 days. Individuals that use other prescription or illegal drugs may have different times for testing positive for cocaine or the other drug or substance. Most cocaine drug test kits test for levels of benzoylecgonine at 300 nanograms per milliliter, which is the standard recognized by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration as the baseline reading for positive. Can a cocaine drug test tell you how long ago the drug was consumed or in what form? It is important to know that cocaine may be ingested or used in many different forms and even combined with other illegal or prescription drugs. While a cocaine drug test will let you know if cocaine has been consumed in the last 24-48 hours through the presence of benzoylecgonine in the urine or saliva, there is no way to know how it was taken. Likewise the cocaine drug test cannot tell you exactly when the drug was used, but you can narrow down the timeframe somewhat. In order to show at the 300ng/ml rate on most tests the drug must have been consumed prior to 48 hours before the test. This may not be true for chronic users or for someone that used more than a typical dosage of cocaine regardless of how many times they had used in advance. Combining cocaine with other drugs may slightly change the timeframe but typically not significantly. Can a cocaine drug test give a false reading? Like any type of substance testing, approximately 98-99% of the time the test will be 100% accurate. In some rare cases, generally because of tester error, the test may be inaccurate. In these situations retesting at the next possible opportunity or using a saliva test instead of a urine test or vice versa can often verify the result or signal that a full lab test needs to be completed. Often the greatest cause of errors in reading a cocaine drug test occurs from waiting too long to read the test or reading the test too soon. It is essential that anyone using a cocaine drug test read and follow all the manufacturers instructions, including correctly timing the test prior to reading the results.

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What types of businesses, companies or agencies use a urine drug test?

Thursday, June 11, 2009

In the United States urine drug test requirements are common both pre-employment and during employment in most types of private companies and public agencies. This is especially true in employment where lives are at stake if someone was to be impaired or under the influence of alcohol or a non-approved or permitted drug. In general anyone driving, operating or working on any type of automobile or machinery will be subject to both pre-employment and random drug tests. In addition rehabilitation center staff, police departments, military departments, pilots and airline crews, prison workers and inmates and even schools are now using some type of urine drug test if there is a suspicion of use. In addition random drug tests may be held at any time if they are a term of continued employment with any type of business, company or organization. Is there a way to cheat a urine drug test? Depending on the substance being tested for the answer is a qualified yes, at least in theory. In reality most urine drug test kits will have an adulteration test that checks to make sure that the urine has not been altered in any form or with any type of chemical or commonly found substance. In general these tests will also test for specific gravity, which means that if some drinks a huge amount of water to dilute their urine to try to pass a test it will catch the dilution and signal a problem with the sample. The individual can then be monitored and tested again after the required number of hours without additional water consumption. There are products available that can mask specific drugs in the body, however in general these products are very expensive and not easily accessible on an ongoing basis. Random drug tests that are administered at different times of the day, different days of the week and to different individuals without advance notice will minimize anyone's ability the cheat a urine drug test. What is the major drawback to using a urine drug test kit? Perhaps the most challenging aspect of using a urine drug test as opposed to a saliva or oral test is that you have to specific facilities for the employee or individual to use. In addition if you want to fully monitor the test subject a person has to be able to supervise the urine collection, meaning that both a male and female tester have to be present. For some individuals with bladder problems or other conditions, providing a urine sample can be a problem. Some people have a lot of difficulty providing a urine sample on demand, which can increase stress and lead to challenges for the individual when their time to test occurs. A urine drug test kit is easy to use with simple, step by step instructions for administration and interpretation of the results. In the case of a faint or uncertain response, which is very rare, another test can be administered as soon as possible to very the results. Since they are relatively low cost this is not an issue for most employers, businesses and organizations.

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How accurate is an at home drug test?

If the test is administered correctly and within a specific time frame after ingesting or consuming a specific drug, it is almost 100 % accurate. Different tests offer different ranges but most report over 99% accuracy. Of course there are ways that the individual being tested can attempt to trick or negate the results of a drug test, which is not a fault of the test. Using an at home drug test that has an adulteration component or test will help ensure that the sample has not been tampered with or the individual has not taken one of the many "cleanse or cleaning" supplements available. Can someone be on drugs but pass an at home drug test? At home drug tests are not comprehensive for every drug that an individual may take. For example, not all prescription drugs will show on at home drug tests, especially if the test administered is only for marijuana and cocaine. Street drugs may also not show if the incorrect test is used. It is essential if parents or professionals are using an at home drug test to have an idea of what drug they should be testing for. Often many parents or even professionals working with children already have an idea of what drugs are likely to be problematic. For people that are working with children or adults that are suspected of drug use, learning the signs and symptoms of various drugs can be extremely helpful. Watching the individual's behavior, physical changes, mental functioning as well as social behavior can really assist in narrowing down the general type of drug that you may want to test for. Can a test give a false positive or a false negative? If the test is administered incorrectly or if the urine, saliva or breath was tampered with in some way then a false negative could occur. In all tests there is a baseline measurement or lower limit of sensitivity to the specific drug. If the at home drug test is given outside of the time that the drug stays at detectable levels in the body then the test will show negative, even though the individual had used that particular drug. Testing within 2 days of most types of suspected use is the best option to avoid this problem. Testing too soon before the body metabolizes the drug can also give a negative reading so that timeframe is important. There are charts provided within at home drug test kits to help testers know the timeframes to watch. False positives can rarely occur however generally it is because the child or individual is on some type of prescribed medication that cannot be distinguished from a drug you are testing for. Many ADHD medications will show as amphetamines and many anti-depressants will often show as benzodiazepine positive. If your child or the adult you are testing is on a prescription for these groups or types of drugs, consult with your doctor before using an at home drug test.

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What are the dimensions of a portable AED defibrillator?

Each different model and brand of portable AED defibrillator is going to be slightly different in size, shape and weight. Most portable AED defibrillators will measure approximately 3 inches in height, 12 inches in length or depth and about 10 inches in width. They are designed to be easily stored in small spaces or specific containers that can be mounted to the wall or used in a first response vehicle. For schools, public buildings, gyms and even community centers the containers and portable AED defibrillator devices are often stored or kept in the same area as the fire alarms, which allows the first person on the scene to alert the fire department as well as access the portable AED defibrillator all at one time. Most portable AED defibrillator will weigh in at about six to ten pounds, again with easy portability the key in design. Can a portable AED defibrillator be connected to the internet to share information? Most newer models of portable AED defibrillators will come equipped with a serial port or a USB port that will allow connection to a laptop or computer and then to the internet. This is essential for many emergency medical services that may be responding to significant cases of trauma and injury. In addition most portable AED defibrillators also have internal memories that record and time stamp all readings, actions and electronic monitoring that the equipment does. This information can then be accessed via those ports to assist doctors and emergency medical staff when they arrive on the scene. What training do I need to have to use a portable AED defibrillator? The whole purpose of having fully automated portable AED defibrillators is that the person using the equipment doesn't need specific medical training, although if trained individuals are present it is recommended that they use the equipment. All that is required is that the individual operating the equipment attach the self-adhesive, self-gelled pads to the victim's chest. The machine then reads the heart's electric impulses and determines if a shock needs to be administered to regulate the heart rhythm. When the machine determines that the heart needs to be shocked, it will signal the battery that will immediately charge the system then administer the therapeutic shock. The individual operating the system does not have to make this decision, nor does he or she have to push a button or tell the machine what to do in any fashion. The portable AED defibrillator then continues to monitor the heart's response and will subsequently determine if any further impulses are needed. Can I get training in using a portable AED defibrillator? Yes, many organizations that offer first aid certification and classes also include portable AED defibrillator training in their workshops. Generally organizations such as the American Safety and Health Institute, the American Red Cross, and the American Heart Association offer trainings. In addition manufacturers of the portable AED defibrillators typically provide in house training or provide a DVD of how to use the equipment.

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What are the most important features of hospital privacy curtains?

The most important feature of good hospital privacy curtains is that they are well constructed and the fabric used is effective as a privacy barrier. Ideally a hospital privacy curtain should be 8 or 12 ounce fabric that is also inherently fire retardant. This is essential for compliance with many fire regulations and safety protocols in hospitals, doctor's offices and patient care facilities. Hospital privacy curtains can also be important in setting the tone or the environment within a specific examination or treatment area. Most of the high quality curtains some in a variety of colors that are both soothing as well as relaxing. Patterns that include subtle colors, natural motifs and colors found in nature are always popular and will match almost any neutral or natural type color scheme. For areas that are going to treat children, colorful curtains can make a statement as well. What are antibacterial and antimicrobial fabrics? Antibacterial fabrics are typically the heavier, 12 ounce fabrics. They come in a wide range of solid and subtly patterned colors and they are ideal for any type of medical facility. The antibacterial component is applied to the curtains to help to minimize and reduce the growth of fungi, molds and mildew that can develop in any type of an indoor environment. In addition antibacterial treatment of hospital privacy curtains can help control the growth of MRSA, which is a very virulent and treatment resistant form of staph infection. Since this is a huge concern in medical settings, antimicrobial curtains are strongly recommended. Antimicrobial fabrics offer many of the same benefits as the antibacterial fabrics. This fabric, when used as hospital privacy curtains, resists mold, mildew and bacteria growth but it also has stain and odor release properties that make them durable and long lasting. Generally the antimicrobial fabrics tend to be 8 ounce fabric, which is highly practical for larger cubicle areas. What are Bioactive hospital privacy curtains? Bioactive hospital privacy curtains are made from a fabric containing Trevira CS Bioactive fibers. These fibers are naturally flame retardant, which makes them ideally suited for most fire safety regulations and protocols. In addition the fibers make the curtains antibacterial as well, keeping mold, mildew and bacterial growth problems in check. Perhaps the biggest advantage to Bioactive hospital privacy curtains is that the features of the curtains, the flame retardant and antibacterial properties, are right in the fabric itself meaning that they will last the entire life of the curtain. These fabrics are also remarkable in that they have been certified to be non-allergenic and to not cause any skin reaction to contact with the fabric. Since many people are highly sensitive to fabrics and fabric treatments, this is a very important consideration for doctors and medical facility managers. Like all hospital privacy curtains the Bioactive line comes in over 40 different colors and patterns, all designed to provide a restful and attractive privacy curtain in any medical facility or patient examination room.

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What options are there for mounting cubicle curtain tracks?

Monday, June 08, 2009

There are two basic options for mounting cubicle curtain tracks of any size or variety. The first option is a ceiling mount, which allows the track to be installed flush to the ceiling. This is a good option for anywhere that a flat, standard height ceiling is available. Tracks that are ceiling mounted are sturdy and secure and will be durable, ideal for emergency rooms or patient care areas with high usage. Suspended cubicle curtain tracks do not mount directly to the ceiling but rather hang down from the ceiling. The track is still affixed to the ceiling through the use of 1-inch aluminum tubes that are attached to the ceiling by flanges. There are also wall mounting brackets that are used to provide support at the ends of the tracks that terminate against a wall. The suspended cubicle curtain tracks are an excellent option if the ceiling is higher than average or if there are obstructions or equipment that is mounted to the ceiling in areas where a track would need to go. Suspended cubicle curtain tracks are also a good way to increase lighting within the cubicle area and provide a more open appearance while in the cubicle. What are cubicle curtain tracks made of? Hospital cubicle curtain tracks need to be both lightweight and highly durable. The best material to achieve both of these criteria is aluminum. It is naturally rust resistant, even before treating, plus it is strong and very light. This ensures that tracks, even suspended cubicle curtain tracks, are not going to be at risk of pulling out ceiling panels due to their weight. To finish the cubicle curtain tracks to a glossy appearance they are coated with a baked enamel surface, usually in white. This color will match with any curtain color plus it is always clean looking and matches most hospital and clinic décor. The inside of the cubicle curtain track is coated with a highly stick-free Teflon coating. They are also pre-lubricated, ensuring that the carriers will glide or roll inside the track with ease. What types of carriers or hooks are used? Carriers, which are the way the curtain is attached to the cubicle curtain tracks, are made of durable solid nylon. This is a non-rusting material that allows smooth gliding or rolling within the lubricated and Teflon coated track. Since they don't rust or become pitted as some metal can, they will continue to provide ease of opening and closing the curtains. Both the glide and the roller style carriers provide a swivel that is also nylon. This swivel is attached to a chrome plated lightweight steel hook, which is then inserted into the grommet of the curtain. Breakway carriers are entirely made of nylon and provide very lightweight carriers for a variety of different types of curtain styles. End stops are attached to the ends of either the ceiling mounted or the suspended cubicle carrier tracks to stop the carriers from being pulled out of the track.

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What are the primary functions of hospital cubicle curtains?

Tuesday, June 02, 2009

As most medical professionals are aware, the hospital cubicle curtains have many different uses. Naturally, the first one that comes to mind is patient privacy. Any good doctor or nurse knows that the more privacy and comfort a patient can feel the more cooperative they will be and the more effective their treatments will be. Of course, if the patient is there to have test run, you can count on better, more accurate results when the patient is as comfortable with the situation as possible.
Hospital cubicle curtains also fulfill the requirements on privacy provided by state and federal laws. The wide selection of curtain styles, patterns and even panel lengths and widths ensures that your office, examination room or patient care area can be private but also relaxing. Choosing the right hospital cubical curtains to match your décor or add a touch of color to the room isn't difficult given the variety of materials, patterns and even fabrics available.
In what areas of the hospital can hospital cubicle curtains be used?
The first thought that comes to most people’s minds when they think about hospital cubicle curtains is the emergency room. It’s no secret that hospital cubicle curtains are an important asset in this area of the hospital where there is often no time to find more discreet rooms to treat injured and sick patients. The cubicle curtain allows discreet, but fast medical treatment to take place. Disposable hospital cubical curtains that contain liquid repellent fabrics are an ideal match for these areas.
Using the more colorful or patterned curtains is a great option for pediatric wards and units. Not only does adding a bit of color tend to take away from the hospital like setting, but it provides a more cheerful background for patients and their families. Antibacterial and antimicrobial curtains are a great option in these settings as they are very hygienic while still practical in providing privacy.
What features can you expect to find with hospital cubicle curtains?
Hospital cubicle curtains aren’t necessarily a one size fits all product. They can be ordered in just about any size or design that fits the medical office or hospital need. Of course, they are available in a variety of different colors to match the décor of the triage or waiting area. Prints and patterns are an option as well. Color isn’t the only thing you get to choose when you order and use hospital cubicle curtains. They also come in a multitude of sizes and lengths as well. Depending on the level of privacy needed, you can order full length or shorter curtains. The grommets used to attach the curtains to the hooks or carriers should be heavy duty to prevent tearing of the fabric with use. Hospital cubicle curtains may also have a plastic or mesh border around the top, adding a more airy or open environment for patients within the privacy curtains. Environmentally manufactured curtains made of a special type of polyester are a great option since they can be recycled into new curtains after use. The dyes used in these curtains are also environmentally safe, making these a true green product.

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